UDC 549:291,33
LBC 86.41:26.31
  K.305

RUS language
RUS
 

Stone, minerals and semiprecious of the world stone
Sulphide: Bismutite (Bismuthine) -->rus

   Diagnostic cart.

   Bi2 S3 (sulfide of Bi bismuth)
   Crystal structure rhombic
   Hardness on the Mohs scale 2
   Specific unit weight mass 6,8
   Cleavage perfect absolute
   Fracture, break wrong, rough
   Colors tin-grey
   Colors in powder triturate leaden-grey
   Glance (glitter, glare) metallic

   Bismuthine (Bi bismuth brilliance), sulfide of Bi. Strong metallic brilliance, opaque. Colors of white with a leaden-grey tint, sometimes pied oxide tint. A line is grey. Fracture, break padman. Fragile. Cleavage very perfect absolute. Be found in hydrothermal deposits. Crystals (rhombic Crystal structure) are rare - pole, needle. Aggregates are radiant, stalk-like, dense, grainy. Main base ore of Bi. Places of distribution: Ore mountains, Saxony (Germany), Sweden, Bolivia, CIS.

   Mineral of rhombic Crystal structure, forms the crystals of the extended, columnar, basaltiform form. Along the vertical verges of prisms there is perfect absolute cleavage; they are covered by the dense shading. More frequent mineral forms dense grainy or radiant aggregates. Bismutite is opaque, the color of mineral is tin-grey, brilliance is metallic. The products of change have either iridescent or rather yellow colouring. There is a color in the sprinkle of snow - leaden-grey. Crystals are flexible.

   Bi (Bi) 81,2%, Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone (S) 18,8%, mainly with the insignificant admixtures of lead, copper, iron, arsenic, antimony, tellurium. Form of crystals. Stolbchatye crystals; the verges of crystals are usually covered the thin vertical shading. Crystalline structure. Analogical the structure of antimonite. Class of symmetry. Rhombo-bipyramidal group- mmm. Cleavage. Perfect on a prism (010). Aggregates. Radiant formations, continuous grainy massive accumulations.

   Diagnostic indication.

   Bismutite is very alike on Antimonite and outwardly undistinctive from him. Easily melt fuse on coal, abandoning lemon-yellow, gold raid of oxide of Bi, in restoration flame melt fuse in the Bi kinglet. A behavior is in acids. Easily dissolves in an aquafortis.

   Origin provenance genesis.

   Bismutite has hydrothermal genesis. An association is ordinary with an antimonite which appears at a few to more low temperature.

   Deposit minefield mine and use.

   Accumulations, having industrial interest, are set in Bolivia, Peru. To Britain (Kornuoll) and in Australia. Found out good crystals in the United States USA (California and Dakota), in Mexico and Canada. This mineral is used for extraction of Bi (table of contents - 81,2% on weight).

   


Bi. Porretta, Italy(on the left) and Sonth Ural (Russian Federation, CIS) is Bi and bismuthine. A photo: © A.A. Evseev.

   

   Bi (bismuth) behaves to the moderato toxic for the organism of people ultramicroelement. It influences on a chromogenesis "sunburn" ("hormones negro", "melanism") - melanin - and participates in the processes of ossification, calcification. The dangerous is consider the chronic receipt preparation of Bi in the amounts of 1-1,5 g in a day. In the organism of people Bi gets with food, with air and water. Suction of Bi, entering gastroenteric highway, insignificant and 5% makes. Revealed in blood as compounds with squirrel, gets to the red corpuscles.

   Much more credible is entering of Bi organism with medicinal preparations at a reception them inward or through a skin (at outward application). In-use in medicine of salt of Bi of insoluble in water, used as colloid solutions and does not have high toxicness. However, at the protracted or intensive reception of preparations, containing Bi, the origin of complications is possible. One of basic displays - the so-called "Bi bismuth border" is inflammation, arising up from the deposit of sulphureous Bi on the edges of gums. Violations are possible and from the side of urinoexcretory ways.

   Between organs and tissues Bi is distributed evenly. The accumulation of Bi can be observed in a hepar, buds (to a 1 mcg/g), spleen and bones and in a cerebrum (psychiatry). Bi, getting through a gastroenteric highway, is selected as a sulfide of Bi, painting an excrement in a dark color. Rezorbirovannyy Bi is selected with urine. Bi falls into the category of heavy metals, it is moderato a toxic element.

   Bi induce by the synthesis of low-molecular albumens, participates in the processes of ossification, calcification, intracellular inclusion forms in the epithelium of kidney tubulis, genotoxic and mutagene properties has. Intoxication is observed at the protracted affecting organism of salts of Bi in large doses. There are cases of the paratherapeutic, professional and domestic poisonings.

   Basic displays of surplus of Bi (bismuth): decline of memory, insomnia signs of defeat of the nervous system (violation of sensitiveness, rigidity, stiffness, rigor of the back of head), weakness of cardiac activity, arrhythmia, appearance of dark border round gums (operates as Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red is a sulfide of mercury), pigmentation ("melanism") of mucous membrane of gums and cavity of mouth; stomatitis, pharyngitis, difficulty of swallowing; salivation, nausea, vomiting, stomach-aches, flatulence, diarrhea; toxic hepatitis with fatty degeneration and cirrhosis; albuminuria, cylinders in urine, "Bi" dermatitises, loss of appetite, decline of forces, weight loss, malnutrition.

   The subgallate of Bi at causing on a skin and mucous membranes causes the compression of colloids (gel of silicon, silica) of extracellular liquid, mucuses, exsudate and forms protective tape which protects completions of sensible nerves from an irritation and which is able to reduce the pain feelings and hinder development of edema. Subnitrate of Bi (bismuth) as ointments and powders is used as a protective and anti-inflammatory antiphlogogenic mean at dermatitis, eczema, erosions and ulcers of skin. At setting inward of salt of Bi form on-the-spot mucous membranes of gastroenteric highway tape, are chelate compounds with albuminous substrate, which is instrumental in diminishing of inflammatory process, cicatrization of peptic ulcers and decline of number of relapses. Preparations of Bi possess a antibacterial action (as silver).

 

   DOPOG #5.1  
   Matters substances, which oxidize

   Risk of stormy reaction, self-ignition or explosion at a contact with combustible or flammable matters

   To shut out formation of mixture of load with flammable or combustible matters (for example by sawdusts)

   Yellow rhombus, number of DOPOG, black flame above by a circle