Stone, minerals and semiprecious of the world stone
Native elements: Mercury, Quicksilver -->rus
Crystal structure amorphous
Hardness on the Mohs scale liquid (ordinary terms)
Specific unit weight mass 14,5
Fracture, break non-existent
Colors white silvery
Colors in powder triturate non-existent
Glance (glitter, glare) metallic
As Mercury, Quicksilver at ordinary terms is a liquid, it does not have crystalline forms (thermosets at -39 hail. With, in form hats of mushrooms is a planet Mars, middle and arctic breadths). In nature often contains a little bit of silver and golds, with which easily forms mixtures (alloys), urgent an amalgam. Mercury, Quicksilver has characteristic stannum (tin)-white metallic color, brilliant, but opaque. It be found as silvery drops in an association with a red cinnabar.
About a cinnabar a naturalist and volcanist Pliny mentions Senior (I century A.D.) - it described a receipt preparation took for a catalystic, catalytic mercuries from a red cinnabar by heating last with coal (Donbass, Ukraine). Mobility of mercury caused to life other its name is "living silver" (lat. Argentum vivum). The largest in the world deposit of mercury and cinnabar is in Spain, it was developed as early as times of the Roman empire. A city Almaden (Almaden) in Spain is a center on the industrial production of mercury, because here is the largest in the world deposit of cinnabar, mineral in which (in a "clean" kind) contained to 85,8 % mercuries. A Mercury, Quicksilver in Almaden e obtained during more than two thousand years (from times of Pliniya Senior and before is an icon-painting of Russia). Name of city in means a "mine, pit, hole". Chemical element, liquid heavy metal of serebristo-belogo color, dangerous an organism.
In 2006 of collar of mineries of Almaden a were opened for the visit of tourists which it is offered to to get down downward, on a 50-meter depth and by the eyes to sm mines, meet with technologies of booty of spanish stratal (including lacustrine) cinnabar of modern sublimate multideposit hand and by other methods.
Mercury, Quicksilver sometimes be found in the free state. Mercury, Quicksilver is a rare element, however concentrated its compounds are in some deposits in comparatively generous amounts (Almaden is Spain, Europe, EU). Free Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone was repeatedly discovered in crude oils - by formation to black modification of cinnabar at shaking with a mercury (detector of earthquakes and precursor of tsunami, EU).
In hellenism Egypt and for greeks (I century A.D.) the name was used scythian water, that allows to think about the export of mercury from Scythia (Nikitovka, Donetsk region, southeast of Ukraine). In Arabic period of development of chemistry (Mauritanian occupation of Spain) there was a mercury-sulphuric theory of composition of metals, in obedience to which Mercury, Quicksilver was honoured mother of metals, and Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone and Pyrite ("Spanish gold", "gold of fools" - sulfure) - by their father.
The great number of the Arabic names of mercury was saved, that testifies to its value in the secret alchemic (contraband goods) operations of receipt preparation of amalgam - "white gold" - alloy of mercury and gold of HgAu with the purpose of care from payment of customs duties and collections at a contraband export it abroad. Efforts of Arabic, and later and west-european alchemists (contrabandists) taken to the so-called falsification of amalgam of mercury (under silver and platinum - "silver") and transformation of it in a hard matter - gold (by heating and evaporation from the white amalgam of mercury of Hg - powerful aphrodisiacs, Turkey). In opinion of alchemists, turning out here false spurious "silver" (philosophical is an amalgam of gold and mercury) transformed heating in gold of Au.
Alchemists (contrabandists of Europe) distinguished the great number of types of amalgam of mercury and accompanied its general name Mercurius (Mercury is Roman god of trade and stealing) different epithets (Mercury metals, minerals, Mercury raw, weak and t. of д.). In swingeing majority of alchemic treatises, expounding the methods of transmutation (heatings) of metals, Mercury, Quicksilver stands on the first place either as an initial metal for operations or as basis of philosophical stone (philosophical Mercury, Quicksilver - frightful aphrodisiacs for women at heating).
Native Mercury is so besieged, Quicksilver (on a carbon dust as catalyst). Further
it was collected by hand, in the special vessels about 2 litres, and such vessel,
gap-filling a mercury, weighs about 30 kg The drops of native mercury glance (glitter, glare) on a photo.
A photo - http://www.turizm.ru/ (on materials of Russian Federation, on April, 05, 2011)
Hg. Mercury, Quicksilver native, Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red. Almaden Mine, Ciudad Real, Castil-La Mancha, Spain
A photo - http://fotki.yandex.ru/users/kazus67/ (on materials of Russian Federation, CIS)
Various horrific and shocking imagination prison epics, marine adventures, tsunami, secrets and riddles of the Madrid royal court, - it, sure, Spain, EU - and the forced work (XVIII century) most dangerous and out-of-control the law (frequently, fugitive) of prisoners from different regions.
Escapes of prisoners are most famous from "Almaden mercury Hell" in style "Angelica in France and at the Mediterranean seaside" in XVI-XVIII century A.D. (epoches of Peter First, Netherlands), and also thefts of spanish red monolithic Almaden red cinnabar which on all of Europe swindlers successfully gave out for rubies (Turkey and Roksolana, Asia) and other stone.
King of Spain in 1566 A.D. selected to that end 30 state convict and hired the house of Fuggerov (Fugger). In 1645 permission, given in 1566 for development of mineries, made (by reason of illiteracy of exploiters and total parasitism on mines) off, and mineries went back into the undivided order of Spanish king which in a hope to increase an income, sent to work on the mines of Almaden y of prisoners which was contained due to the budget state in prisons of the capital of Spain Madrid and did not work (dependant). The mechanized technology of booty of cinnabar appeared at the end of a 18 age, when on mineries engineers and technical workers appeared again.
By virtue of characteristics of political device of Spain, where despotism and tyranny of absolute monarchy of Spanish king reigns, made a decision strictly unitary exactly this hierarchy of Western part of European continent. Slave labour on the mineries of red cinnabar ("blood of earth"), poisoning a cinnabar, famous spanish tortures, escapes from terrible spanish prisons make basis of colour of it original and not having analogues of the European state, being based on the epos of red cinnabar, living and dead water, and glorified in various works of world science (Pliniy Senior) and culture (icon-painting of Russia). Original illustrations of the Spanish mines of red cinnabar and mercury and tourism - website http://velolive.com.
It is impossible with anything to entangle in compound with the liquid state (characteristic marbles with silvery metallic brilliance, heavy).
Origin provenance genesis.
Appears usually at oxidization or strong warming-up of cinnabar. Together with a native element can be present also rare minerals of mercury: montroydite (oxide, orange color), calomel or Eglestonute (chloride, dense shallow bodies, whitish-yellow color).
Deposit minefield mine and use.
Good copies acted from the mine of Levilyani (Staccema, a province Lukka), rarer - from the mine of Monte-am-Yata. In Europe known from Monte-ava-la (Serbia), Idriya (Slovenia), Almaden (Spain), Landsberg (Germany). In the USA set in locality of Terlingua (Texas), in New-Almaden and Maunt-Dyablo (California). Mercury, Quicksilver is used in the production of thermometers and electrical equipment, and also metallurgy. Extracted from a cinnabar.
Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #6.1
Toxic non biological matters substances (toxin)
Risk of poisoning at inhalation, contact with a derma or swallowing. Make a danger for a water environment or sewage system
To use a mask for emergency abandonment of transport vehicle
White rhombus, number of Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs, black skull and crossed cross-bones
Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #8
Corrosive (caustic, pungent, acrid) substances matters
Risk of burns as a result of eating away of derma. Can stormily react between itself (components), with water and other matters. Matter, that spilled / scattered, can select a corrosive pair.
Make a danger for a water environment or sewage system
White overhead half of rhombus, black - lower, isometric, number of DOPOG, test tubes, hands
Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #9
Other hazardous substances matters and produce
Risk of burns. Risk of fire. Risk of explosion.
Make a danger for a water environment or sewage system
Seven vertical black striaes on a white background is a top, white - lower half of rhombus, number of DOPOG
Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #Dead fish draft
Matters substances, dangerous for an environment (ecology, including melting, soluble, powdery and fluid materials)
Make a danger for a water environment or sewage system
Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #Rhomb
Preventive sign for denotation of freight transport vehicles which transport dangerous loads in the limited amounts (packed and marked by system of DOPOG, Ukraine).
Overhead, nizhniy corners and contour of sign must be black. Central part - white or other contrasting color (yellow, gold).
Mercury, Quicksilver. Almaden , Spain, EU. A photo: © A.A. Evseev.
Inorganic compounds of mercury: corrosive sublimate (mercuries are a dichloride - Mercury, Quicksilver with culinary salt, halite, natrium sodium chloride), Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red (mercuries are a sulfide), calomel (mercuries are a monochloride), mercuries nitrate, mercuries amidochloride, mercuries of oxycyanide, mercuries Salicylas, mercuries of diiodide; organic compounds: insectofungicide; medications: Mercusalum. Mercury, Quicksilver and its compounds is very toxic. Organic compounds of toxicant inorganic. Mortal doses of corrosive sublimate, diocide and diiodide mercuries at a reception inward make for adults 0,5-4.
Mercury, Quicksilver and its compounds act through the organs of breathing, digestive vehicle, skin and mucous membranes. The sharp poisonings can arise up because of breathing in steams of metallic mercury or dust of quicksilver pesticide. Zaglatyvanie of metallic mercury results in intoxication (evaporation into an intestine, especially at the high temperature of patients). Salt mercuries, and foremost corrosive sublimate (Mercury with white salt), can cause the sharp poisoning at suction even from uncrippled mucous membranes and skin.
If poisoning is caused inorganic compounds, sublimate , the symptoms of defeat of digestive vehicle and secretory organs prevail. During intoxication organic matters are symptoms of defeat of cns, violations of hemodynamics. Most early and substantial is formation of loose albuminate at co-operating of it with squirrel, that determines deep penetration in subject tissues and cauterizing operating of preparation on the mucous membranes of digestive vehicle. There are a burn of mucous membranes, dyspepsia phenomena; development of the shock depressed case is possible.
Reason of fatal outcome, letal termination, decease, mortal ends can be shock, paralysis of vitally important centers, sharp cardiovascular insufficiency (oppressing of cardiac activity, purpura rheumatica, purpura nervosa, acute vascular action effects of mercury) or heavy uremia ("sublimate" bud), second septic complications. By the action of mercury on the ways of its introduction to the organism a stomacace and hemorragic colitis, arising up in a few days after poisoning, is explained. Proof cicatrical changes can appear in a digestive vehicle (stenosis of gullet, gatekeeper). A cns, vehicle of circulation of blood, is struck, and from a 2-3th day are buds (sharp kidney insufficiency on the type of azotemia, uremia uremia) because of necrosis of kidney tubulis. In heavy cases are the disseminated defeat of the nervous system on the type of encephalomyelopolyneuritis, sharp decline of cardiac activity and state of collapse. Death comes from sharp cardiovascular insufficiency or heavy uremia. The amount of urine goes down sharply, up to oliguria, oliguresis, oligohydruria, scanty urination and complete anury, an albumen (3-12%), increase of remaining nitrogen, appear in urine, potassium and urea of blood, decline of reserve alkalescence, alkalinity of plasma (acidosis).
Grumble about burning and pain in to the mouth, smart after a breastbone (on motion a gullet) and in an epigastric area (in a stomach), metallic taste in to the mouth, shortness of breath, palpitation. Enhanceable salivation, copper-coloured colouring of mucous membrane of mouth and gullet, sanguifluousness and swelling of gums, swelling of lips is marked, language, lymphatic glands, nausea, frequent persistent vomiting, quite often with the admixture of blood, and through a few clock is a diarrhoea with tenesmus, by mucus, blood. At poisoning the monochloride of mercury of defecating have the greenish colouring. There are a general weakness, persistent head pain, cold, cough, husky, hoarse of voice, pain at swallowing, hypererethism, cramps in gastrocnemius muscles, epileptiform attacks, dimming, eclipse, obscuration of consciousness (fainting fits). In this period there can be a collapse (sharp prostration, low frequent pulse, pallor, fall-off of arteriotony), shock state.
At inhalation a mercury a febricula, head pain, sialosis, is marked, metallic taste in to the mouth, reddening and swelling of gums with appearance on them of dark border of sulfide of mercury (mercury stomatitis). A chill and process begins flows on the type of "metallic" fever. The toxic edema of lights is possible. Head pain, dizziness, adynamy, adynamia, shaking of extremities, unsteadiness of gait, dimming, eclipse, obscuration of consciousness, violation of reflex activity, odynophagia and cramps of gastrocnemius muscles. At the same time there are sharp growth of weakness and fainting fits; there are epileptiform attacks and hallucinations. The somatic temperature of body rises, clonic and tonic cramps, paresises, paralyses, develop, and also there is a loss of eyesight. Under influence of mercury a skin is struck on the type of burn or dermatitis.
Errera-del-Duke also is ashore storage pool of Garsia of Sol. A to one of sights of city, if not to consider traditional almost for every spanish small town tower, overpeering on a hill, there is a fountain, disposed on the main area of Errera-del-Duke. A fountain was built in 1787 - placed on an octagonal pedestal, it is done from the polished black jasper. Today a fountain executes a decorative function only, but initially it was the public source of water.
Talavbera-de-la- Rayna in all of ages was a prosperous city - world glory brought making of ceramics him. As well as other cities of Spain, Talavbera-de-la- Rayna was conquered arabs in 712. A city was filled up fountains, water-mills, trade went uphill. Arabs fixed a city walls, built palaces and mosques. A few areas of sthenes were saved to our time. One of them, built in a 10 age, is the oldest. This wall is unique from all of sthenes, built in the days of Arabic dominion in Spain, stone blocks of ancient Roman buildings served as material for it.
Vast scientific research of mercury and its deposits began in XIX and especially in XXI age. Howled basic properties of mercury, terms of formation and placing of deposits, are set. Large geological material, being based practically on three largest deposits, was accumulated: Almaden and Idriya in Europe and Khuankavelika in Peru. Developed till then. The deposit of Almaden , which is worked off already over four hundred years, is especially remarkable. On present in literature to information, mainly from the European and American deposits from 1500 for a present tense the over 700 thousand tons of mercury are obtained. In XX age on the average annually obtained for the 4-5 thousand tons of mercury. The maximal booty of mercury in foreign countries was attained in 1941 (There is great Patriotic war, landing in Almaden ), when about 9 500 tons were smelted. Approximately 4 800 tons are obtained in 1950, and about 6 000 t/ies were lately obtained on the average.
On territory of the CIS Mercury, Quicksilver was obtained as early as the second age in Middle Asia. In Siberia the booty of cinnabar in industrial scales was first begun in 1759 on Il'dikanskom deposit in Transbaikalia (Zabaykale, Russian Federation, CIS) and proceeded with interruptions to 1883 years. In 1879 were found out the ancient making and outputs of cinnabar ores of Nikitovskoye of deposit (Ukraine, CIS). In 1885 were begun booty and in burning ores a year. In complete force his exploitation began in XX age.
Basic geological works on searches and secret service of deposits of mercury began in XX age. The detailed and purposeful geological works of the last years allowed to prove large perspective of mercury оруденения of Northeast of Russian Federation (CIS). Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red and loose river deposits was found as early as the first years of mastering of Kolymy Russian Federation (CIS). On it, applied it is not enough attention. A purpose was opening of gold, and also tin deposits (1969 to). The number of finds accumulated, and it became clear in course of time, that appearance of cinnabar in loose deposits is the phenomenon not casual.
Indeed, in 1942 (Great Patriotic war, XX century) geologists opened the first deposits of mercury on Kolyma - Verkhne-Taskanskoe and Kuzmichanskoe. An interruption followed then, and at the beginning of 50th of XX age the perspective deposits of mercury were found in the Koryakskom upland and on Chukotka. In future almost every year brought and brings the new openings of deposit of liquid metal. Rights a large scientific academician S.S appeared. Smirnov which wrote in 1946: "... too little is certain the mercuries yet given in regard to concentrations, cobalt and some other metals. But, in any event, the analysis of present data allows to expect firmly, that concentration and these metals, considered while second-rate, in future will play a serious role in general balance of mineral resources of the East province".
Geologists a few before proved perspective of Northeast on a cobalt and now - on a mercury. Deposit minefield mine field occurrence subsoil and mines mercuries is known in the different places of the Magadanskoy area. Especially interesting finds, having an industrial value, are done on Chukotka the geologists of Chaunskogo of district geological management Russian Federation (CIS). There are the interesting openings on a mercury south-west of Chaunskoy of lip. Cinnabar is widespread, Vermilion, Spanish Red on territory of Anadyrskogo of district in which a few finds of mercury are done in the native bedding. Value them very great. In Bilibinskom region seach very interesting deposit of mercury in a direct closeness from gold (amalgam). A, finally, the central districts of Kolymy are studied where first on Northeast was opened Mercury, Quicksilver. The searches of deposits of mercury begin in the Magadanskoy area. There is a lot of districts and objects the study of which will result in opening of new mercury deposits the CIS.
Interestingly to mark that settlers, mastering territory of Alaska (North America, USA), as early as beginning of past century worked off mercury deposits there. They were reopened Americans only at the beginning of present century (a deposit of Red Devil, Canada et al). Thundering Mercury, Quicksilver is used as a detonator, Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red - as a pigment; organic compounds of Hg - in agriculture as stains of seed and herbicide and as a component of paint of corps of maritime courts; preparations of mercury - in medicine, mainly due to their antiseptic and diuretic properties.
Mercury, Quicksilver and its compounds is extremely toxic, therefore during work with them caution is needed (complete pressurizing of apparatus). At a chronic mercurialism and by its preparations the nervous system is struck: there are excitability, trembling of separate parts of body, weakening of memory (amnesia). Poisoning tells on the mucous membranes of cavity of mouth, characteristic signs: metallic taste in to the mouth, making light of gums, strong salivation (aphrodisiacs). Spilled in the apartment of Mercury, Quicksilver must be collected carefully (the plank beds of mercury are dangerous). Maximally possible maintenance of mercury in mid air industrial enterprises 0,00001 mgs/l. Sublimates form in the cooled part a thin raid in which by sight or by a microscope it is possible to find out the drops of mercury.
In the organism of Mercury, Quicksilver stays too long protractedly, accumulating as compounds with an albumen (albuminate) in different organs, mainly in a hepar and buds. The phenomena sharp cardiovascular insufficiency and defeats of buds prevail at introduction of toxic doses of mercury (necronephrosis, anury). Other phenomena of the mercury poisoning develop in future. There are a general weakness, head pain, cold, cough, husky, hoarse of voice, pain at swallowing, hypererethism, cramps in gastrocnemius muscles, epileptiform attacks, dimming, eclipse, obscuration of consciousness. There can be a collaptoid reaction (prostration, low frequent pulse, pallor, decline of arteriotony), shock state. The amount of urine goes down sharply, up to oliguria, oliguresis, oligohydruria, scanty urination and complete anury, an albumen, acidosis, appear in urine. In severe cases are the disseminated defeat of the nervous system on the type of encephalomyelopolyneuritis, sharp decline of cardiac activity and state of collapse. Death comes from sharp cardiovascular insufficiency or severe uremia.