Rus
 

Stone, minerals and semiprecious of the world stone
Sulphide: Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red -->rus

   Diagnostic cart.
   On a photo are twinned crystals of cinnabar of bright red in Calcite

   Hg S (sulfide of mercury)
   Crystal structure trigonal
   Hardness on the Mohs scale 2-2,5
   Specific unit weight mass 8,1
   Cleavage perfect absolute
   Fracture, break uneven
   Colors red
   Colors in powder triturate red
   Glance (glitter, glare) diamond

   Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red is a sulfide of mercury. Glance (glitter, glare) diamond or dim, transparent in thin chip. Colors: from red to brown-red, by areas grey. A line is red. Fracture, break uneven, step. Fragile. Cleavage perfect absolute. A bright red or brownish-red mineral form of mercuric sulphide (mercury(II) sulphide), found close to areas of volcanic activity and hot springs. It is the main commercial source of mercury. Formula: HgS. Crystal structure: hexagonal.

   Be found in low temperature hydrothermal deposits. Crystals (trigonal Crystal structure) of thickplate tablet lamellar, rare. Usually composes dense aggregates, grainy or downlow. Main ore of mercury. Places of distribution: Spain, Italy, Yugoslavia (EU), USA, Japan, China (Asia), Ukraine, Russia (CIS).

   A mineral is crystallized in trigonal Crystal structure, very rarely as individual separate crystals. Usually he is observed as crystalline or earthy the masses or as a raid. Has a characteristic rich red colour. Glance (glitter, glare) diamond on the fresh surfaces of cleavage of the extended crystals; but in earthy aggregates shows up poorly. Ground up in powder of Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red saves incident to it intensive red colouring. Psychotropic toxin (bad sleeps). Other name of mineral - cinnabarytes.

   Diagnostic indication.

   At heating to the temperature higher 580 oC Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red melt fuse, selecting the drops of mercury. A mineral easily scratches a knife-blade; as heavy as lead, fragile frail brittle, with perfect cleavage.

   Origin provenance genesis.

   Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red has hydrothermal genesis. It appears during cooling and consolidation of remaining magmatic fluid after crystallization of granites and pegmatites. Be found as streaks, crusts and disseminations in the rocks of different type, foremost in limestones and clay rocks, but also in lavas, directly related to the displays of vulcanism (volcanism). Sometimes be found in mineral deposits (basic sediments deposits, appearing as a result of destruction of ancient rocks, containing this mineral), where concentrated due to the large specific gravity (mass).

   Almaden is a large mercury deposit in Spain (EU), the largest in the world and unique in quality of ores. Developed from a 1th millennium A.D. It is located on the Sonth wing of the large (60х40 km) Shilonskoy syncline, built old-palaeozoic slates with three packs of quartzites, mineralized. A main deposit is timed to one of these packs - to the place of it tornado-like bend, complicated slanting break a secret. An ore-bearing pack (40-60 m) contains three converging on the depth of layer of ore quartzites (for 4-12 m) are three levels of kimberlite, to karst. Falling of layers is almost vertical. A high-dipping ore kimberlite post is exploited (about 50 years). Length of him on-the-spot 650 m, on the depth of the modern working (508 m) off are 450 m. Goes to the magma is a permanent dry sublimation of mercury, sulphur, brimstone forming of cinnabar.

   The massive ores, dense; besides a cinnabar contain the noticeable amount (to 1/20) of native mercury. With a depth maintenance of mercury goes (%) down, water goes: 30-20, 18-12, 7-5, 4-3, on operating horizon 2-1. An about 500 thousand t metal is obtained. A maximal annual production is to 2,5; in 80th XX century a booty hesitates within the limits of 1,2-2,0. Remaining supplies are estimated in 250 thousand t. A booty is conducted in mines. System of development of ceiling-ledge with the selective coulisse of rich parts of ore beds (at a hanging side). A roof and walls of the operating making (a section is a to 10х3 mcode) is fastened anchor shaft lining, shaft support and covered a protective net with their simultaneous cementation. Native Mercury, Quicksilver, flowing down on soil of making, going separately. Renewable resources (on a catalyst arsenic).

   Deposit minefield mine field occurrence subsoil.

   Most known deposits of cinnabar: Almaden in Spain (norms of GAI of Ukraine of transportation of dangerous loads - DOPOG #9 - toxin, skull and cross-bones on a white-yellow background, in a rhombus, orange gleam lighthouse, in the night), Monte-Amata in Toskana, Idriya in Slovenia. This sulfide here is in small massive accumulations and disseminations in lavas, limestones and other rocks. Deposit minefield mine field occurrence subsoil is exposed in the USA is New-Idriya, New-Almaden . Here, in the state Arkansas, found out also the well-shaped little crystals. The Russian, CIS, peruvian, Chinese and Algerian deposits have a large value also.

   Use, practical application, deployment.

   As Mercury, Quicksilver in a clean kind is large rareness, Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red is the most essential industrial mineral for its receipt preparation. Mercury, Quicksilver is used for the production of different exact devices and for an amalgamation (gilding, gilt are tablewares and other). In the past Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red used as a pigment for making of red paint, but synthesized Cinnabar prefer presently, Vermilion, Spanish Red. The separate crystals of cinnabar find rarely. More frequent all of mineral be found as grainy aggregates. Although Cinnabar, easily enough to melt Vermilion, Spanish Red, warming to 200oC, but dissolving stone is possible only in mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, known under the name is "aqua regis (chloroazotic acid)".

   The most known deposits of cinnabar of place are in Spain (Almaden ), Slovenia (Idriya, EU), Mexico and USA (California, Oregon, Nevada). Among other countries-bread-winners of mineral it is possible to name Kyrgyzstan, Austria, Italy, China, Ukraine (Donbass is Donetsk region, Priazove (Sea of Azov), CIS). In Russia (Russian Federation, CIS) of Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red obtain on Altai, in Transbaikalia (Zabaykale) and on Chukotka. Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red also is one of characters of China. The bright red paint made on the basis of cinnabar was known also in Ancient Egypt. As early as III age B.C. here this mineral used for colouring of souvenirs. In Ancient Russia of Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red was used at painting of icons. By it capital letters were also written in the slavonic manuscripts of XI-XIV of ages. On Russia a paint, made from a cinnabar, was used for painting of icons, on fresh cleavage chip of Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red reminds blood stains. On air gradually oxidizes from a surface, covered thin tape of oxide tint blueing (HgО).


Cinnabar, Spanish Red, Vermilion. Cherreto-p'yano, Grosseto, Toskana, Italy. A photo: © A.A. Evseev.


Cinnabar, Spanish Red, Vermilion red crystallized with shallow microcrystal.
New Almaden mine, California, USA.


Cinnabar, Spanish Red, Vermilion red hidden. Metacinnabarit (octahedron 3-5 mm) on a cinnabar (N 478)
and other Karginskiy of о., Bering sea, SV coast of Kamchatka, Russia (Russian Federation, CIS). A photo: © A.A. Evseev.


Crystal of red cinnabar - dangerous water-soluble red toxin stone of the amnesia and unconsciousness

   

   Deposit minefield mine field occurrence subsoil. Nikitovskoe deposit. Ukraine

   On materials of useful and necessary internetproject of http://www.catalogmineralov.ru/ (Russina Federation). Nikitovskoe a deposit is on territory of Donetsk region of southeast of Ukraine, developed and famous the remarkable standards of cinnabar, in particular case by well well-educated macles and their joint, junction, sometimes in an association with a black needle-shaped antimonite. Twins of cinnabar from this deposit quite often differ a rare cleanness, and are semilucent to almost transparent. Were met also Druses of crystals of cinnabar on the brushes of crystals of colourless quartz in cracks (volcanos). One of the eldest in Ukraine mercury deposits - Nikitovskoe - is in Donbasse (Donetsk area, Gorlovka). Here on a different depth (to 20 meters) found out the ancient mountain making in which it is possible it was to find tools - stone hammers.

   Red Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red is main base ore of silvery, liquid in earthly terms metal of mercury. A mineral has the beautiful bright red or brownish-red colouring, reminding the color of blood (dangerously - it is possible to entangle with an anhydroferrite "red head"). It is considered that the name of stone ascends to greek "kinnobaris" is blood of dragon. In labours of Gerodota there is information that greeks took out a red paint from Priazovye (Ukraine, the CIS), where the booty of cinnabar was conducted long before sew on Era. Ancient scythians (Ukraine, the CIS) named this paint - "kinnabis" (word from Australia). On this basis, it is possible to suppose that word of "Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red" has and scythian, and foreign (for Ukraine, CIS) origin. A mineral have me and other names: coral (Pacific ocean) ores, a ball ores, blende is mercury, Chinese stone (Shan-khay, China).

   Nikitovskoe some likeness has a deposit with deposit Khuankavelika in Peru and, New-Almaden in the USA and native industrial deposit of cinnabar - Almaden in Spain, timed to silicification sandstones. Nikitovskoe the ore field is presented by formation of Quartz- dickinsonite - Cinnabar type. A deposit is timed to the global system of distributions in the earth's crust - "to the lineament of Karpinskogo".

   Termobarogeokhimicheskimi researches are set temperature diapason processes of mineralization in the interval of 290-90 oC. Character of waters of mineral-forming solutions and volcanic sublimate of constituents (Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone) is estimated researchers as mixed at the substantial participating in them deep juvenile (young)- magmatogene deposit of constituent (batholite), that was certain on isotopic characteristic oxygen and hydrogen.


Sofia mine, Nikitovka, Donbass, Ukraine. A photo: © I. Kirillin. Editing: Д. Tonkacheev, 2013

   All of rich (non-commercial) in ore areas are disposed within the limits of bar, prolate in sublatitudinal direction, these beds are timed to the Gorlovskoy anticline of the east of Ukraine. Cinnabar mineralization in all of deposits of the ore field is concentrated in silicification sandstones, beddings among batts, and rich mineralization genetically gravitates to the secant (slanting) alligatorings (on the type of plural strictly-vertical cracks in the earth's crust, Almaden , Spain (EU) - on active volcanic effusive batholites).

               

 

   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #6.1  
   Toxic non biological matters substances (toxin)

   Risk of poisoning at inhalation, contact with a derma or swallowing. Make a danger for a water environment or sewage system

   To use a mask for emergency abandonment of transport vehicle

   White rhombus, number of Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs, black skull and crossed cross-bones

 

   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #8  
   Corrosive (caustic, pungent, acrid) substances matters

   Risk of burns as a result of eating away of derma. Can stormily react between itself (components), with water and other matters. Matter, that spilled / scattered, can select a corrosive pair.

   Make a danger for a water environment or sewage system

   White overhead half of rhombus, black - lower, isometric, number of DOPOG, test tubes, hands

 

   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #9  
   Other hazardous substances matters and produce

   Risk of burns. Risk of fire. Risk of explosion.

   Make a danger for a water environment or sewage system

   Seven vertical black striaes on a white background is a top, white - lower half of rhombus, number of DOPOG

 

   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #Dead fish draft 

   Matters substances, dangerous for an environment (ecology, including melting, soluble, powdery and fluid materials)

   Make a danger for a water environment or sewage system

 

   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #Rhomb 

   Preventive sign for denotation of freight transport vehicles which transport dangerous loads in the limited amounts (packed and marked by system of DOPOG, Ukraine).

   Overhead, nizhniy corners and contour of sign must be black. Central part - white or other contrasting color (yellow, gold).

   

   In 1991-1992 XX century (post-USSR) Nikitovskiy a combine is declared a bankrupt (refuses to work on a deposit), whereupon on his base began to work "Nikitovskaya Mercury, Quicksilver" (semiindustrial production), "Factory of precision materials" and гос. enterprise, engaged in hydraulic protection of earths (department of ecology of Donetsk) of neighbouring territories. Taking of inventory of this deposit of Donbassa conducted in 2010-2012 rotined the presence of perspective ore layers and sufficient for the semiindustrial mastering supplies of mercury. In opinion of most specialists, to revive the booty of cinnabar and production of mercury on this deposit really.

   In 1995 XX century 110 years were carried out from the beginning of mastering of mercury ores of Nikitovskoy of group of deposits in Donbasse (the east of Ukraine). This anniversary, unfortunately, coincided with the stop of operating works of Nikitovskogo of mercury mine. In his history it is the not first case, when on one or another reasons mountain works were stopped - 30th XX century (sabotage). After proceeding in works (on the type of Almaden, Spain), in passing with the booty of mercury, again will appear at the market state purchases remarkable and one's own way unique industrial and museum prototypes, accessible for contemplation (toxin is transportation in impermeable containers, DOPOG of GAI of MVD of Ukraine of N 6, 9 and other).


Cinnabar, Spanish Red, Vermilion (look like flowers and garden-stuffs of plant a ground-cherry is crystals in a retort).
Nikitovka, Donbass, Ukraine (ex-USSR). A photo: © A.A. Evseev.


Cinnabar, Spanish Red, Vermilion. Nikitovka, Donbass, Ukraine. A photo: © A.A. Evseev.


, Spanish Red, Vermilion. Nikitovka, Donbass, Ukraine. 30 mm. A photo: © N.A. Koltova

 


 

   From the most ancient times the sulphureous sulfide of mercury served as raw material for the production of mercury - Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red (by crystals, druses and stratal). The booty of cinnabar in ancient mineries was conducted in anomalous terms. Miners perished from dehydration and poisoning the pair of mercury, the uses of cinnabar are sulphur, brimstone. In the mountain making, where made the booty of cinnabar in antiquity, archaeologists find not only the instruments of mining labour (stone hammers, wedges) but also skeletons lost at violations of rules of exploitation of deposits (breathed sulphur, brimstone and by a mercury).

   Ancient technology of extraction of mercury is no less dangerous from ore. Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red laid in clay pots, which set in a chamber, laid out from a brick (Spain, west of Europe Almaden ). Next to pots laid the branches of trees with a fresh foliage (and by an ash, condensation on a charcoal). At heating of cinnabar in the clay pots of Mercury, Quicksilver began to evaporate. Pair, passing through leaves, were condensed and besieged on them. Otyazhelevshie from mercury "dew" branches were shaken off in the special tableware.

   Stove Bustamente (on a photo - Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red, Spain, west of Europe) considered by a perfect enough method: from below conducted a fire, higher laid ore and poured a catalyst is coal (C is a carbon), at heating of mixture of Mercury, Quicksilver evaporated and got in a "refrigerator" - pipes, built from ceramic vessels without a bottom (an ash and coal is needed are catalysts). There Mercury, Quicksilver was condensed, flowed down in the central opened chamfer and on him got in the receiver of mercury. Below is a model more ancient and less perfect a stove (handicraft method of receipt preparation of cinnabar), Museum of mercury (exactly this stove as the "Russian Stove" is glorified in the epos of Moldova and Russian Federation, CIS, "patties with a cinnabar").

   In many countries of Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red since olden times used as a red pigment (Bibles of Russian Federation, monasteries, restoration). One of biggest-selling paints was it in Ancient Russia (Russian Federation). Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red differs more rich and saturated colour. In workshops of ancient painters together with a cinnabar - stone of loss of memory (amnesia), often supplied and Mercury, Quicksilver - sex stone aphrodisiacs for women (at heating).

   Preparation of cinnabar is so described in a treatise: "If want to prepare Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red, take sulphur which is present in three kinds: white, black (coal, bitumen) and saffron-yellow; pound saffron-yellow sulphur on a dry stone and add to it two parts of mercury on weight, weighing everything on scales. When all will be well pounded, put mixture in a glassy vessel, densely obturate, that smoke did not vanish, coat vessel from every quarter by clay and put on a fire to dry out. Push him on conflagrant coals, and when he will be heated, will hear inwardly noise is unites Mercury, Quicksilver with conflagrant sulphur. When a sound will be halted, take off a vessel from a fire, open it and take out a paint".

   Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red - most widespread a mineral mercury. Appears in hydrothermal near the surface deposits, together with quartz, Calcite, barytes, antimonite, Pyrite, galena, galenite, marcasites, rarer with a native mercury and with native gold (by a dry sublimation, the richest on a metal ores are dry sulfides). Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red quite often put aside in vein, lode, mines among strongly metamorphized jasperoid (quartz color) rocks, associated with recent volcanic activity and alkaline thermal springs.

   Mineral deposits of cinnabar are an inferior by value industrial type of mercury; independent industrial interest is presented by large enough remaining eluvial-slope mineral deposits, spoon and alluvial mineral deposits of the near tearing down, and also auriferous mineral deposits with a cinnabar, from which the last is extracted in passing. The remaining mineral deposits of cinnabar are most widespread in the districts of development of barks of the chemical weathering, where they are timed to "red clays" (sial kimberlite) - formations of bark of weathering of lateritic type. The small, but very rich accumulations of cinnabar are timed to the eluvial and deluvium deposits in sluggies and cavities.

   In moderate and high breadths eluvial-slope mineral deposits register cinnabars, related to coarse deposit disintegrations on slopes and interfluve (valley of river stream) within the limits of the ore field (Chukotka). They have the appearance of stratal beds power to 3 m and Cinnabar contain, Vermilion, Spanish Red in debris, fragments, splinters with quartz (be found also native Mercury, Quicksilver). In spoon and alluvial mineral deposits of Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red accumulates both as grains and well balled material pebbles shingle, built dense massive differences. Its bulk is concentrated on a raft (kimberlite); an extent of these mineral deposits is a 1-2 km, power of layer is 0,2-3 m; usually they are closely attended with native sources, going out in the bottom of valleys, and are single-horizon field, single-layer field beds of undose, undulate (striated, laminar) or nest structure. The mineral deposits of cinnabar are known in North America, USA (New-Almaden), in Yugoslavia (Avala), on Northeast of Russian Federation (CIS). Age of mineral deposits of cinnabar of Pliocene-Quaternary; on Northeast of Russian Federation (CIS) bury alluvial mineral deposits of cinnabar are exposed in regional parts of seashore cavities (Seashore, Pacific ocean).

   From the numerous deposits of Middle Asia the largest - Khaydarkan in Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan). Also Chauvay (Kirghizia) and Adrasman (Tadjikistan). Other deposits of mercury were developed in Middle Asia. So, for example, inscriptions in the palace of antique Persian tsars of Akhemenidov (VI-IV of age to B.C.) in Suzakh talk that Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red, which was in those times used mainly as dye, delivered here with Zeravshanskikh of mountains, located on territory of modern republics of Tadjikistan and Uzbekistan. Presumably, Cinnabar, Vermilion, Spanish Red obtained here as early as the middle of the first millennium to sew on eras. In Russia (CIS) a large deposit is known on Chukotka. Lord Pliny Senior mentions in making, that Ancient Rome bought in in Spain annually to 4,5 tons of mercury.