Stone, minerals and semiprecious of the world stone
Native elements: Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone -->rus

   Diagnostic cart.
   Crystals are grey from Koccodisi (Agridzhento)

   Crystal structure rhombic or monoclinic
   Hardness on the Mohs scale 2
   Specific unit weight mass 2-2,1
   Cleavage noperfect absolute
   Fracture, break padman
   Colors yellow, gold, brown
   Colors in powder triturate white
   Glance (glitter, glare) from resin to fat

   Sulphur, Sulfur (the US preferred spelling of sulphur), Brimstone native - S. Glance (glitter, glare) fat to diamond, mineral is transparent to translucent. Colors: yellow, gold, at weathering becomes grey or brown up to black. A line light-yellow, gold yellow, goldish, a fracture is a padman, uneven. Very fragile. Cleavage noperfect absolute. Sulphur appears, Sulfur, Brimstone as a product of volcanic возгонов, be found also in biogenic-basic sediments deposits.

   Crystals (rhombic Crystal structure) are pyramidal, beer-barrel. Chasty joint, junction. Aggregates continuous coarse-grained, sterny, dense, sometimes earthy (there are botryoidal and kidney-shaped reniform excretions), triturate raids. Used for preparation of sulphuric acid, in rubber industry and for a fight against the wreckers of agriculture. Places of distribution: an island is Sicily (Italy), Spain. Poland, CIS, Japan, state Louisiana (USA), Mexico.

   Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone is an example of polymorphism. In the stable phase (to 95 oC) of rhombic Crystal structure, in an interval to 119 oC passes to monoclinic. At the increase of temperature melt fuse. In nature by virtue of it be found mainly in a rhombic form. Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone forms bipyramidal crystals and grainy aggregates. Characteristic for this mineral color - lemon-yellow, gold, which can change up to almost black from contamination a bitumen.

   Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone (British Sulfur, French Sufre, German Schwefel) in the native state, and also as sulphureous compounds known from the most most ancient times. With the smell of conflagrant sulphur, met the suffocating action of sulphureous gas and disgusting smell of the sulphuretted hydrogen of persons, probably, as early as prehistoric times. Approximately the half of producible in the world sulphur is obtained from natural supplies.

   Diagnostic indication.

   Fragile, bad explorer of heat; sometimes there is an enough touch of hand, to cause cracking of crystal. Revives electricity at a friction. Fuse melt at a low temperature, on air burns, selecting toxic gas of sulphuric anhydride.

   Origin provenance genesis.

   Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone - mineral, characteristic for the basic sediments deposits of type of evaporites and direct ("dry") volcanic sublimation, and also as an element of volcanic (thermal) sulphureous sources (poisonous water and hot fumes is grey acids). Consider that it appears at decomposition of sulfates, before all of gypsum (with which it more frequent than all and be found jointly), under act of bacteria, foremost "thiobacterium". A monoclinic phase appears during the sublimation of steams of sulphureous acid in a volcanic environment (in solfataras). On a photo - the aggregates of crystals are grey, usually urgent "flowers are grey".

   Deposit minefield mine and use.

   Found out the large deposits of sulphur in Texas and Louisiana in the roof of hydrochloric domes (evaporite deposits - any sedimentary rock, such as rock salt, gypsum, or anhydrite, formed by evaporation of former seas or salt-water lakes), recovered clay layers. Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone in these deposits practically does not have admixtures, it is obtained at well-drilling, boiling water is forced in which. It melts sulphur which is pumped out after on a surface (method of Flesha).

   Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone is widespread also in Italy along the outputs of gipseous sulfur-containing layer, which contour Apennines, especially in Roma, to Brand, Kalabrii and Sicily. Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone there interleave, interstratify with clay rocks, therefore for its extraction (now halted) a difficult enough method is required. On the sulphuric mines of Sicily used the method of squeezing out. The sulphur obtained in a mine was melted and inundated in large capacities.

   Other deposits are known in Japan and Indonesia. In Italy the very beautiful crystals of rhombic sulphur are known from Roman'I, to Brand (Pertikara) and Sicily, where they are associated with celestine and aragonite. Monoklinnaya Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone is set in Kampi-flegeri and on the island of Vulkano. Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone is used in chemical industry and for the production of mineral fertilizers.

Sulphur, Sulfur,
Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone (crystal). Sicily, Italy (EU). 5х2,5 sm. A photo: © A.A. Evseev.

Druse of crystals is grey (60х40 sm) from Sicily (Italy, EU). A photo: © V.I. Dvoryadkin.

Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone. Druse of dipyramid, bipyramid crystals on the crystal of colourless gypsum
and into him. Sicily, Italy (EU). A photo: © A.A. Evseev.


   Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone are "mineral beauties" (joke on of the USSR soviet penal servitude "prison jail zone", convict prison of the European Spain type, as EU, "state prison zone", 1939-1969 XX century, where job work of prisoners were including on sulphur, as "The Wall", Malosemeykino, Russia, Europe, CIS). Table of contents grey in the body of the grown people - about 0,16% (110 g on 70 kg of mass of body). Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone is contained in all of tissuess of organism, a lot of it in muscles, skeleton, hepar, nervous tissue, to blood is an active exchange of matters. The superficial layers of skin are rich in yellow sulphur, where Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone enters in the complement of keratin and melanin. It is sulfides. Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone enters organism with food products, in composition inorganic and organic compounds. Greater part of sulphur gets in an organism in composition amino acid.

   The basic displays of surplus are grey: itch, rash, furunculosis, reddening and swelling of conjunctiva; appearance of shallow point defects on a cornea; a dull ache is in eyebrows and eyeballs, feeling of sand in eyes; photophobia, dacryagogue, general weakness, head pains, dizziness, nausea, Qatar of overhead respiratory tracts, bronchitis; weakening of ear, disorders of digestion, diarrhoeas, decline of mass of body; anaemia, psychical violations, decline of intellect. Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone are volcanos and sulfureous, sulfurysources, fumes are grey (99.3%). Accumulate are products. One of sources of surplus receipt preparation of sulphur are sulfur-containing compounds (sulphite), and consumption of sulphite, which is increased, guiltily in growth of morbidity bronchial asthma.

   Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone is needed: at a white plague, arthral rheumatism, inflammations, heartburn, arthritises, Ringo, problems with hairs (when the amount of kreatin below than norm in them), pains in joints, parasitogenic infection, syndrome of angry intestine, at a wrist vein, lode, mine syndrome (professional disease of "work of the computer machine" and typewritten workers), illnesses of skin and nails.

   The signs of insufficiency are grey: locks, to the allergy, dullness and psilosis, fragility of nails, enhanceable arteriotony, pains in joints, tachycardia, high level of sugar and high level of triglyceride in blood. Fatty dystrophy of hepar, hemorrhage - in buds, violations of albuminous and carbohydrate exchange, overdriven of the nervous system, crabbiness. Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone - mineral, doing a garlic by "king of plants".

   Atoms of sulphur are component part of molecules of irreplaceable amino acid (cystine, cystein, methionine), hormones (insulin, Calcitoninum), vitamins (pond biotscums, Thiaminum), glutathione, taurine and other important for an organism compounds. In their composition of Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone participates in oxidation-reduction, redox reactions, processes of the tissue breathing, making of energy, passing to genetic information, and executes a lot of other important functions. Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone is the component of structural albumen of collogen. Khondroitin a sulfate is in a skin, cartilages, nails, copulas and valves of myocardium. Sulfur-containing metabolite are haemoglobin, heparin, histohematins, Fibrinogenum and sulfolipids.

   Sulphur, Sulfur, Brimstone is selected with urine as neutral sulphur and inorganic sulfates, less part of sulphur hatches through a skin and lights, and hatches mainly with urine as SO42-. Endogenous sulphuric acid, appearing in an organism, takes part in defuzing of toxic compounds (phenol, ketole and other) which are made the microflora of intestine, and also links foreign for an organism matters, including medicinal preparations and them metabolite. Harmless compounds appear thus - conjugate, which after hatch from an organism. The exchange of sulphur is controlled those factors which render regulative influence and on a proteometabolism (hormones of hypophysis, thyroid, adrenal gland, sexual glands).



   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #2.1     
   Flammable gases

   Risk of fire. Risk of explosion. It can be under constraint. Risk of difficulty in breathing. Can cause burns and/or frostbite, congelation. Capacities can burst at heating (dangerous, perilous - does not burn practically)

   To use shelter. To avoid the low areas of surface (pits, low-laying areas, trenches)

   Red rhombus, number of Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs, black or white flame


   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #2.2     
   A gas bottle Nonflammable, untoxic gases.

   Risk of difficulty in breathing. It can be under constraint. Can cause deep frostbite (look like a burn is a pallor, bubbles, a black gas gangrene is a creak). Capacities can burst at heating (dangerous, perilous is an explosion from a spark, flame, match, does not burn practically)

   To use shelter. To avoid the low areas of surface (pits, low-laying areas, trenches)

   Green rhombus, number of Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs, black or white gas bottle (type "bulb", "thermos")


   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #2.3  
   Toxic poisonous gases. Skull and crossed cross-bones

   Toxic hazard. It can be under constraint. Can cause burns and/or frostbite, congelation. Capacities can burst at heating (dangerous, perilous is instantaneous distribution of gases on a vinicity)

   To use a mask for emergency abandonment of transport vehicle. To use shelter. To avoid the low areas of surface (pits, low-laying areas, trenches)

   White rhombus, number of Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs, black skull and crossed cross-bones


   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #3     
   Flammable liquids

   Risk of fire. Risk of explosion. Capacities can burst at heating (dangerous, perilous - burn easily)

   To use shelter. To avoid the low areas of surface (pits, low-laying areas, trenches)

   Red rhombus, number of Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs, black or white flame


   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #4.1   
   Flammable hard solid substance matters, self-reactive matters and solid desensitized explosives

   Risk of fire. Flammable or combustible matters can catch a fire from sparks or flame. Can contain self-reactive matters, apt at exothermic decomposition in the case of heating, contact with other matters (such as: acids, compounds of heavy metals or amines), to the friction or blow.

   It can result in the selection of harmful or flammable gases or pair or spontaneous combustion. Capacities can burst at heating (dangerous, perilous - does not burn practically).

   Risk of explosion of the desensitized explosives after the loss of desensitizer

   Seven vertical red striaes on a white background, isometric, number of Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs, black flame


   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #8  
   Corrosive (caustic, pungent, acrid) substances matters

   Risk of burns as a result of eating away of derma. Can stormily react between itself (components), with water and other matters. Matter, that spilled / scattered, can select a corrosive pair.

   Make a danger for a water environment or sewage system

   White overhead half of rhombus, black - lower, isometric, number of DOPOG, test tubes, hands