Stone, minerals and semiprecious of the world stone
Oxide and hydrooxide: Thorianite -->rus

   Diagnostic cart.

   Th O2
   Crystal structure cube
   Hardness on the Mohs scale 6,5-7
   Specific unit weight mass 9,9-10
   Cleavage determined hardly
   Colors black, chestnut (maroon)-black
   Colors in powder triturate greenish-grey
   Glance (glitter, glare) from horny to semimetallic

   Radio-active mineral of black, chestnut-black color, opaque (thorium). Mainly has a cube type, sometimes modified in an octahedron due to cutting away of tops little verges. Enough often there is a double, similar to the crystals of Fluorite - most dangerous imitator of Fluorite (can accompany in deposits intensively-painted darkly-violet Fluorite, the dark and ink color of which is caused the massed destructions of crystalline lattice of Fluorite under act of high doses of radiation and possible enriching of Fluorite radio-active constituents in cracks between crystals and surroundings). Also alike on Marcasite (sulfide of iron), which has characteristic plate tablet lamellar crystals of goldish color.

   Diagnostic indication.

   Enough hardness by sight to distinguish Thorianite from Uraninite - wilfully not to diagnose !! At first blush finding character and easy solubility is most substantial for such distinction in an aquafortis is executed on the specialized concentrating combines. Safer for life and health to apply those rules of safety to the thorianite, what at an appeal with Uraninite - not to touch hands, not to suit close and to transport in the only specialized containers. It is impossible to keep in home terms. Dangerous even in museums. Thorianite is especially dangerous with the admixtures of uranium and Uraninite (hydrothermal). Thorianite is a rare black mineral consisting of thorium and uranium oxides. Formula: ThO2*U3O8.

   Origin provenance genesis.

   For a thorianite, bedding is characteristic in alluvial deposits (river mineral deposits of stone), and also in metamorphized limestones, where this mineral be found in an association with spinel, diopside, fhlogopite and other Present also and deposits of pegmatitic type - often with high maintenance of uranium. Cheaper Uraninite.

 Physical characteristics of Thorianite.

   Dangerous radio-active mineral, especially with high maintenance of uranium, especially stone of large size (norm of natural radiation - 17-24 milliroentgen/hour). By the enhanceable level of radiation of stone and minerals is level of radiation from 29-32 milliroentgen/hour and higher. Forms a transitional row to the most dangerous mineral of Uraninite.

   Transportation (slang is "Pilgrimage") of thorianite (thorium) and Uraninite without the special sign (marks) of radiation danger (image of "radioactive" (in Ukrainian, if CIS, in nuclear power plant and other) on the right) and special convoy, escort (including special screens) is categorically forbidden is potential very dangerous radio-active ore !! To develop these minerals it is categorically forbidden wilfully. For the wilful handling these minerals and for the waiver of implementation of directive orders of the authorized public servants post responsibility is foreseen in Ukraine (it is an arbitrariness).

   It is forbidden to carry and touch Torianity hands - mineral causes a defeat (including trophic ulcers on a skin and in an intestine at a reception inward) !!! In any case, from considering of safety and ecofriendlyness, it is forbidden to carry these radioactive stone and minerals and especially to hold them in an apartment or working cabinet standards (a house and apartment is a not mineralogical museum with the possible level of radiation from 32 to 120 milliroentgen/hour and higher for special exposition and mineralogical special safe, storage, depository, depot, storehouse, repository state institutions, where it is settled at presence of warnings denotations and special statements of workers of these specialized establishments). This mineral and his derivates transport only in the special containers, including leaden word slang is "Led Zeppelin" (Ukraine, CIS) and leaden containers-boxes (language word slang is "Coffin" & "The Holy Sepulchre" and "Leader", Russia, CIS).

   A radiation from a point source and small object decreases proportionally to the square of distance to this object. Stepping back on 2 meters from a dangerous object, you will decrease the level of study from this object in 4 times. Stepping back on 10 meters, you will decrease the level of radiation from thoriumin 100 times. If an object, containing uranium and thorium, has a point radiant 4000 milliroentgen/hour at the natural background of radiation of environment 19 milliroentgen/hour (totally 4000 + 19 = 4019 milliroentgen/hour), stepping back from a dangerous object on 10 meters, you will secure itself to the level of radiation 40 milliroentgen/hour from an object and 19 milliroentgen/hour from an environment (total a general level of radiation from an object and environment will be 40 + 19 = 59 milliroentgen/hour).

   Most dangerous is a direct contact with a body and carrying on the body of point and diffuse radio-active sources and components, containing thorium and especially uranium - often hydatogenesis (an about 50% radiation is taken in at a contact with the external surface of body and an about 100% radiation - at a reception into a radio-active or infected object). Most dangerous is a direct contact and reception into radio-active components, stone and minerals, including in the pounded kind and soluble in a liquid. All of wilful injections of radio-active preparations are categorically forbidden. It dangerous for life and health stone and minerals, causing heavy disorders of health at a direct contact with them !!

   Deposit minefield mine and use.

   Alluvial mine deposits are most known on Madagascar and in Sri Lanka, native - in Canada. Canadian material contains the noticeable admixture of uranium (uranothorianite) and has gradual transitions to Uraninite. Thorianite is used for extraction of radio-active metals (thorium and uranium, if the last is present). Dangerous.

Thorianite. Eziva-beava, Madagascar. A photo: © A.A. Evseev.


Rules of Road Transportation of Especially Dangerous Loads -->full
(RRTEDL, The Road Police of the USA, traffic law enforcement of the USA)
Hazardous cargo commodity, signs of DOPOG of GAI of the Ukraine (DOPNV UDAI of the Ukraine,
CIS, militia), index plate placard for transport vehicles and marking of dangerous load


   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #7     
   Radio-active materials (radiation, Ukraine)

   Risk of absorption of external and internal radiation irradiation

   To limit time of influence, burns by a radiation, radiation exposure of photo- and the cinema material

   Yellow overhead half of rhombus, white - lower, isometric, number of Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs, black sign of radiation, inscription, title (text)


   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #7        


   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #7        
   Radio-active materials

   Risk of absorption of external and internal radiation irradiation, radiation burn

   To limit time of influence, burns by a radiation, radiation exposure of photo- and the cinema material

   White, yellow overhead half of rhombus, white - lower, number of Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs, black sign of radiation, text

   Active single-component (impoverished) radiation materials. White rhombus, one vertical red line down - there is not a nuclear military load (including simple h-bomb on a nuclear detonating fuse, impoverished uranium, burning war-head of "Kosovo", EU, single-component without a nuclear explosion). Jurisdiction is metrology of the Ukraine.

   Yellow rhombus, two vertical red lines down is an active single nuclear charge (uranium, nuclear bomb on a type "Hiroshima", including multicomponent of the same type nuclear parts of single military load, single-component explosion and simple chain nuclear reaction - "two in one"). Jurisdiction is GAI of the Ukraine (Road Police Militia of the Ukraine) and war military law and order.

   Yellow rhombus, three vertical red lines down - active double multi-component nuclear charge (plus heavy hydrogen-tritium, thermonuclear bomb of type the "Tihiy Pacific ocean", including nuclear parts of full-duplex military load, chain nuclear explosion and chain thermonuclear reaction - "three in one"). Jurisdiction - war military Road Police VAI of Ukraine and war military law and order.


   Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs #7E     
   Radio-active materials substances are nuclear reaction fission (in the process of explosion)

   Danger of origin of nuclear chain reaction (nuclear reaction, explosion). Active single-component (impoverished) radiation materials.

   White overhead half of rhombus, white - lower, isometric, number of Dangerous "hazardous cargo", signs, black sign of radiation, text